Specifying conditions at a system’s boundary is essential toscientific inquiry. Boundary conditions refer to properties, suchas the magnitude and direction of flows of energy and mass, acrosssystem boundaries. For Earth’s climate system and its subsystems,determining the boundary conditions makes it possible to createmathematical models of climate.
4. The properties between the ocean and atmosphere subsystemsare another example of how boundary conditions contribute to thestate of Earth’s climate system. At the boundary between the oceanand atmosphere, the atmosphere-ocean interface, observational data(e.g., surface weather data, water temperature) helps us determinethe magnitude and direction of ______ transfer across thatboundary.
both matter and energy